The history of the development and origins of the martial art of Aikido

"For some aikido - this is a highly spiritual way to learn the unity of mind, body, and spirit, for others turning to war roots aikidoThis is the martial art of self-defense. ” Aikido It is not only an effective means of self-defense, but a whole system of physical, spiritual and moral improvement of the individual. From other born in Japan and international martial arts, aikido has a pronounced defensive character, deep philosophy, which is based on the principle of total harmony.

Literally translated from Japanese aikidomeans the Path (Do) of Harmony (Ai) with Life Energy (Ki) and, according to tradition, is considered one of the types of BUDO (literally “warrior's way”, in a broader sense, the combination of traditional martial arts of Japan). Aiki, the first part of the word Aikido, consists of two hieroglyphs: ai, which means "to meet, mix, join, harmonize", and ki, words with many meanings, meaning in this case "spirit" and "life energy".

Until, the last part of the word Aikido, symbolizes both a separate “road” along which a person walks, and a universal “way” of philosophical principles. This is the Aikido cultural road - a procedure based on the ideals and classical techniques of the Founder, Morihei Ueshiba. The path of Aikido includes a wider range of life. It encompasses our interaction with other people outside the narrow world of the dojo, our attitude towards society as a whole, our treatment of nature.

Aikido is not a means of achieving victory - the process of mastering it is the main thing in this art, and the most important thing in this process is the improvement and spiritual growth of the students. The principles laid down in aikido, can stop the aggressor, without causing him much harm. Denying violence, avoiding contradictions with nature, not bowing to brute force, aikido is a martial art that makes it possible to live in harmony with other people, strive for unity with the outside world and harmony with oneself.

Along with its popularity as a life path of personal improvement and physical recovery, aikido is a means to protect life from stress and offers something that is missing for us in modern hectic everyday life. Just as travel, work and study abroad become commonplace, the spread of aikido becomes international in nature. Since this art, being a product of cultural heritage, is capable of promoting peace and prosperity, and is not limited to any one nation or nation, the increasing role of aikido in the modern world is quite obvious.

The origins of aikido

No military actions were ever conducted without weapons and one on one, therefore the art of fighting without weapons was only a small part of the general system of military training and gave the samurai the opportunity to survive in case of loss of weapons, continuing the struggle.

The warriors were dressed in heavy armor, and the weapons for the melee were spears, swords, and much more, so the technique aikijutsu was not the attacker and was mostly limited to the use of enemy attacks. The principle of aiki, which is the basis of this art, was the following rule - “When they push, pull, when they pull, push”. This property, in fact, has not changed and remains part of the fundamental basis of modern aikido.

The high priority of the enemy's rollover technique, also preserved in aikido, was ensured by the fact that it was very difficult to rise to his feet after a warrior fell in heavy armor. From a variety of other similar martial arts, aikijutsu was favorably distinguished by the presence of a rich technique of traumatic, painful and fixing effects on the opponent’s joints, which remained available despite the armor. This technique is also preserved in modern aikido.

In almost unchanged form, aikijutsu, as a secret clan art and part of a unified samurai training system, existed until Japan entered the international arena in the second half of the XIX century. The time of the sword was over, and the samurai class was abolished, and the martial arts became irrelevant for direct use in military operations. Aikijutsu, along with many other martial arts, was taught to everyone.

At the same time there was a tendency to transform military art, as a system of combat training of samurai (jutsu) into the path of spiritual and physical development (do). Under the influence of this trend, there was a separation of aikido, which retained the principal and technical basis of the previous system. A significant influence on the formation of aikido as an independent martial art had deep ethical judgments of its founder - Мориха Уэсба. It is thanks to the work he has done that aikido has become one of the most popular martial arts in the world, despite some inconsistency in the style of execution of techniques for the significantly changed conditions of hand-to-hand combat. Because of this discrepancy, the traditional aikido technique, developed for somewhat outdated combat conditions, is hardly applicable to modern combat without some modernization.

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